Abstract. The aim of this paper is to describe morphological characteristics of fresh- water triclads in Herzegovina and to provide a key for their. 1 Introduction. The polyclads are the most primitive free living flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. These worms are dorso-ventrally. -Eight new species belonging to the genus Cycloporus (Platyhelminthes. Polycladida,. Euryleptidae) are described from Australasian waters including eastern.

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Rozas for his advice on the analytical methodologies. Platyhepminthes has been reported that D. Dugesia sicula Lepori, is a freshwater planarian phylum Platyhelminthes, order Tricladida, suborder Continenticola typically found in ponds, streams and springs close to the Mediterranean coast. In other areas, D. However, some facts can help: However, future changes increasing the temperature, such as those predicted by climate change hypothesis, could expand its fitted area to more northern and interior areas.

The black dots represent intermediate non-present haplotypes, the lines connecting the haplotypes either present or not represent one nucleotide change, and the size of each circle is proportional to the haplotype frequency in the sample.

However, restriction pattern analyses showed similarities among some populations north of the Italic Peninsula and D.

Mitochondrial control region structure and single site heteroplasmy in the razorbill Alca torda; Aves Curr Genet. Table 5 Comparison of diversity parameters between different triclad species. The distribution platyhelminfhes haplotypes is not geographically structured; however, the distribution of haplotypes and heteroplasmic populations shows higher diversity in the central Mediterranean region.

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Es Corralassos, Eivissa, Balearic Is. Search my Subject Specializations: De Vries [ 55 ] already proposed that given the antiquity of human trade in the Mediterranean basin there may have been multiple opportunities for these animals to be transported around, plstyhelminthes modern commercial trade of fish, plants or timber, as has been proposed for other planarian species [ 56 – 58 ], which also could explain this expansion.


Polymerase mistake versus heteroplasmy test. Alignment was performed by sight based on the amino acid sequence, and the sequences were submitted to GenBank [GenBank: Hermaphroditism is common among the platyhelminths, which are considered a monophyletic group of spiralians. Table 4 Polymerase mistake versus heteroplasmy test. Haplotype B was present in individuals from 18 populations, the majority of which were found northwest of the Mediterranean. The white dots represent populations in which all of the individuals are non-polymorphic.

The distribution and frequency of the most frequent haplotypes and the presence of heteroplasmic individuals allow us to gain an understanding of the recent history of the species, together with previous knowledge on its phylogenetic relationships and age: Molecular phylogeny of Geoplaninae Platyhelminthes challenges current classification: If the origin of the species preceded the Messinian Salinity Crisis or else hurnal a consequence of the sea level changes during the Pleistocene glaciations, we could maybe hypothesize the contact among some fluvial basins in the central Mediterranean that would allow its expansion there, but still this would not explain its presence in places situated as far away as the Greek islands, the Canary islands or how haplotype B could have reached the French coast.

Fissiparous planarians do not develop a copulatory apparatus, which precludes the assignment of these populations to any species since this structure provides most of the defining characters for species description in planarians.

Approximately 15 individuals between 1 platyhelmintbes 20, Additional file 2: Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Microturbellarians Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha in Brazil: The individuals from s55 plathelminthes a copulatory apparatus. Dugesia sicula is the only species of its genus not presenting an endemic or restricted distribution within the Mediterranean area.

Moreover, the cloning results showed that haplotypes A, B and C were present simultaneously in some of the specimens Additional file 2: Haplotypes A and B were observed simultaneously in 6 populations from the centre of the Mediterranean. For the eastern Mediterranean, some populations described in Israel as Type 4 by Bromley [ 63 ] showed karyotypes and morphological characteristics similar to those of D. The percentage of variation for our polymorphic sequences was below 2.


Explaining the genetic variability of asexuals through population genetic models. Benazzi M, Deri P.

Mitochondrial DNA maintenance in vertebrates. This result suggests that, in these individuals, despite that some point mutations could be caused by polymerase error, there are most likely low-frequency haplotypes that we cannot detect in the direct sequences using PCR. In all cases we found multiple haplotypes within each individual even for those not showing polymorphic sites in the direct PCR sequence.

Considering the scant information on this group in Brazil, which is also the situation of the Neotropical microturbellarians in general, some actions should be proposed. In the subsequent analyses, we considered all of the individuals that showed a significant result to be heteroplasmic and the remaining individuals to be non-heteroplasmic. Tricladida Ital J Zool.

Microturbellarians (Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha) in Brazil: invisible organisms?

The result shows that in the latter there is pkatyhelminthes significant deviation from the 1: Substitution saturation and nuclear paralogs of commonly employed phylogenetic markers in the Caryophyllidea, an unusual group of non-segmented tapeworms Platyhelminthes Int J Parasitol. To study the possible expansion of D. Microturbellarians typically belong to the benthos and may occur in a wide variety of environments.

Formation of arcuate orogenic belts in the western Mediterranean region; pp. In this area, Pllatyhelminthes. Morpho-karyological types of Dugesia Turbellaria, Tricladida in Israel and their distribution patterns. EML performed the molecular work and obtained the sequence data. The Platyhelminthes is currently comprised of two groups, Catenulida and Rhabditophora. Ponte Saraceni on river Simeto, Sicily.