Generalization Aggregation – Learn DBMS in simple and easy steps starting from its The reverse is called specialization where a person is a student, and that. Terms such as superclass, subclass, or inheritance come to mind when thinking about the object-oriented approach. These concepts are very important when. Speculation Specialization and Aggregation in DBMS are deliberation systems used to model data. The reflection is the instrument used to shroud the.

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In the diagram above, the relationship between Center and Course together, is acting as an Entity, which is in relationship with another entity Visitor. This special kind of relationship is termed as an aggregation. In specialization, a group of entities is divided into sub-groups based on their characteristics. Generalization Specialization Aggregration Let’s understand what they are, and why were they added to the existing ER Model.

The best way to mode such situations is to use aggregation. In generalization, some entities are accommodated together aggregatioh one generalized entity or category based on their similar characteristics.

It is a form of abstraction that specifies two or more entities sub class having common characters that can be generalized into one single entity super class at higher level hiding all the differences. As the hierarchy goes up, it generalizes the view of entities, and as you go deep in the hierarchy, it will provide with the detail of every entity included.

In generalization, the higher level entity can also combine with other lower level entities to make further higher level entity. The relationship between a superclass and a subclass is one-to-one 1: Going up in this structure is called generalization, where entities are associated together to represent a more generalized view. Since the s there has been a rapid amplification in the development of many new database systems that have more demanding database requirements than those of the traditional applications.

Specialization might be seen generalizatipn the generaliization procedure of Generalization. So it is a top-down methodology in which one larger amount specializatioj can be separated into two lower level element. A relationship represents a connection between two entity types that are conceptually at the same level.


In specialization, a higher level entity may not have any lower-level entity sets, it’s possible. Specialization is a process of identifying subsets of an entity that shares different characteristics. Comments Edit Answer Report. Such generalizaiton entity-set is treated in the same manner as any other entity-set.

Download our mobile app and study on-the-go. For example, pigeon, house sparrow, crow and dove can all be generalized as Birds.

Notation of Generalization Generalization is represented by a triangle with a line. Aggregation One limitation of the E-R model is that it cannot express relationships among relationships. In this way, it is a base up methodology as two or lower lever substances are consolidated to shape a more elevated amount element. The normal qualities implies here properties or techniques.

Hence, as part of the Enhanced ER Modelalong with other improvements, three new concepts were added to the existing ER Model, they were: But in a company, persons can be identified as employee, employer, customer, or vendor, based on what role they play in the company.

Hence, as part of the Enhanced ER Modelalong with other improvements, three new concepts were added to the existing ER Model, they were:. In this way, the two deliberation instruments used to model data: Inheritance is an important feature of Generalization and Specialization. JavaScript Tutorials jQuery Tutorials.

Specialization is the abstracting procedure of acquainting new qualities with a current class of items to make one or all the more new classes of articles.

Explain Generalization, Specialization & Aggregation with the help of an example

The entity shall be a student, and further, the student is a person. We use all the above features of ER-Model in order to create classes of objects in object-oriented programming. It allows lower-level entities to inherit the attributes of generalizatioj entities. It’s more like Superclass and Subclass system, but the only difference is the approach, which is bottom-up.

As the hierarchy goes up, it generalizes the view of entities, and as we go deep in the hierarchy, it gives us the detail of every entity included. You get question specializaton, syllabus, subject analysis, answers – all in one app.


The Enhanced ER Model

C Tutorials C Programs. Going up in this structure is called generalizationwhere entities are clubbed together to represent a more generalized view. In simple words, aggregation is a process where the relation between two entities is treated as a single entity. For example, the attributes of a Person class such as name, age, and gender can be inherited by lower-level entities such as Student or Teacher.

To illustrate the need for such a construct, quaternary relationships are used which lead to redundancy in data storage. Specialization is the opposite of generalization. As the complexity of data increased in the late s, it became more and more difficult to use the traditional ER Model for database modelling.

Would you like to add a better answer? The ER Model has the capability of articulating database entities in a conceptual hierarchical manner. For example, Saving and Current account types entities can be generalised and an entity with name Account can be created, which covers both.

Sometimes you may want to model a ‘has-a,’ ‘is-a’ or ‘is-part-of’ relationship, in which one entity represents a larger entity the ‘whole’ that will consist of smaller entities the ‘parts’.

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in ER Model

As mentioned above, the process of generalizing entities, where the speckalization entities contain the properties of all the generalized entities, is called generalization. Below is the example of aggregation relation between offer which is binary relation between center and course and visitor. Generalization is used to emphasize the similarities among aggregatiion entity sets and to hide the differences in the schema.

Answered on 24th Jul,95 Views. Generalization It is a bottom-up approach in which two lower level entities combine to form higher entity. Conglomeration is the procedure of ordering data on an item, in this way abstracting a larger amount object.