Title Page / Vorwort / Inhaltsverzeichnis. Elsner H. Elsner H.: Krebsentstehung und endokrines System. Basel, Karger, , pp I-VI (DOI/). Translation for ‘Endokrines System’ in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. German-English Dictionary: Translation for endokrines System.

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Cells of the brain are particularly vulnerable. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world.

Most of the pancreas acts as an exocrine gland producing digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. Another hormone, aldosterone, secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, also affects water balance indirectly. Sywtem contrast, hormones act more slowly and their effects may be long lasting. There are two parts to this endocrine gland, an outer cortex and an endokrijes medulla. In order to survive, animals must constantly adapt to changes in the environment.

This stimulates the development of the male reproductive system and the male sexual characteristics – generally larger body of male animals, mane in lions, tusks in boars, etc. The main endocrine glands in the body are the pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroidand adrenal glandsthe pancreas, ovaries and testes. Hormones are chemicals that are secreted by endocrine glands.

Faced with a perilous situation the animal needs to either fight or make a rapid escape. In diabetes mellitus the pancreas produces insufficient insulin and glucose levels in the blood can increase to a dangerous level.

Endokrines System – English translation – German-English dictionary

In mature animals it increases the rate of chemical reactions in the body. It does this by increasing the absorption of sodium ions Na- from the kidney tubules. Water is lost from the body by many routes see module 1. After moderate blood loss, several mechanisms come into play to increase blood pressure and make up blood volume. If mating occurs, other hormones stimulate the release of ova from the ovary of the female and a range of different hormones maintains pregnancy, delivery of the kittens and lactation.


Again it is the hypothalamus that monitors the concentration of the blood and initiates the release of hormones from the posterior pituitary gland.

This increases water retention since it increases the osmotic pressure of the endokrinea around the tubules and water therefore envokrines out of them by osmosis. In rodents and rabbits, however, it is spread thinly through the mesentery and is sometimes difficult to see. The pineal gland is found deep within the brain see diagram However, hormones only affect the specific target organs that recognize them.

Policies and endpkrines Contact us. It produces the hormone melatoninwhich influences the development of sexual maturity and the seasonality of breeding and hibernation.

Target cells respond to minute quantities of hormones and the concentration in the blood is always extremely low. Many inland soils in New Zealand contain almost no iodine so goitre can be common in stock when iodine supplements are not given.

Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Endocrine System

The body achieves this stability by constantly monitoring the internal conditions and if they deviate from the norm initiating processes that bring them back to it. Systen positions in the body are shown in diagram For example, to maintain a constant body temperature the hypothalamus monitors the blood temperature and initiates processes that increase or decrease heat production by the body and loss from the skin so the optimum temperature is always maintained. High level of melatonin in dim light makes an animal tired and depressed and therefore causes low fertility in animals.


Much of the carbon dioxide produced by respiration in cells is carried in the blood as carbonic acid. Loss of blood or body fluids leads to decreased blood volume and hence decreased blood pressure.

Unlike ednokrines glands see chapter 5endocrine glands have no ducts, but release their secretions directly into the blood system, which carries them throughout the body. Cells around the sperm producing ducts of the testis produce the hormone testosterone. The adrenal medulla secretes adrenalin also called epinephrine. Biochemical processes in the enddokrines, particularly in muscles and the liver, produce heat.

It is therefore important that the blood contains balanced quantities of acids and bases.

Hormone & endokrines System by Julie B. on Prezi

Biochemical reactions within the body are very sensitive to even small changes in acidity or alkalinity i. Sweating increases to keep the muscles cool endokrinds the pupils of the eye dilate so the animal has a wide field of view.

The heat is distributed through the body by the blood and is lost mainly through the skin surface. However, we now know that the pituitary gland is itself controlled by the hypothalamus.

This small but vital region of the brain lies just above the pituitary and provides the link between the nervous and endocrine systems. An increased rate of breathing increases the amount of oxygen in the blood and glucose is endokrones from the liver to provide the fuel for energy production.