Find the most up-to-date version of DOE TIC at Engineering DOE-TIC (). Uploaded by fogdart. manual .. This manual w a s prepared f o r t h e Department of Energy, Amarillo Area O f f i c e, Amarillo, Texas. DOE/TIC .. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Amarillo Area Office Facilities and The AE will be given guidance as required by DOE.

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Preliminary calculations for a variety of munitions show that by a distance of one foot from the center of the explosion, the fragment velocity is approximately twice that of the soil particles.

Stochastic Consideration of Cased Munitions for Casing Breakup and Airblast

The input required for the software is detailed and two example problems are given. If X is less than Y, a crater will be formed. The results from the BEM software for mitigation of primary fragments by tamped earth are compared to the results of the sandbag tests completed to date. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number.

The hazards to personnel and public that are of the most concern are overpressure and noise and fragmentation. The BEM software produces the same results as when the method is applied by hand. Average soil properties are used for each of these soil types. Some typical soil data from TM are shown in Table 2.

Examination of the original soil ejecta data from AFWL-TR [5] shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square feet is 1.

Gic suggests that for at least a portion of the burial depth the fragment is travelling through undisturbed soil. To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used. Soil from the crater toc also thrown away from the center of the explosion becoming hazardous.


There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth at which a camouflet is formed.

Write statements were inserted to print intermediate results. However, if the munition is buried deeply enough a camouflet is formed instead and no soil is ejected from the site. The sandbag tests are run with a standoff between the munition and the sandbag.

Is a die or a camouflet formed? Also, where a crater is formed, the soil ejecta range is greater than the sandbag throw. The pre-defined list of soils include dry sand, wet sand, dry sandy clay, wet sandy clay, dry clay, and wet clay.

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At the end of the test program, a full report of these results will be available. The Structural Branch has developed software to simplify and standardize the calculations to determine the withdrawal distance due to fragmentation and soil ejecta due to the detonation of a buried munition. The theory used in BEM is discussed. The burial depths determined using BEM are approximately twice the required thickness of sandbags from the sandbag tests.

The line shown in this figure has been specified by an equation and this equation has been included in BEM.

The user is prompted to input the following values. The results from the BEM software are compared to the results obtained by applying the method by hand.

Figure 1 – Maximum Ejecta Radii for Large Soil Chunks [2] Due to the nature of the equations used in BEM, the calculations will never result in a final fragment velocity and corresponding fragment range of zero. The method addresses cratering and soil ejecta effects as well as primary fragmentation from the munition.


Witness screens are used between sandbags to determine if fragments penetrate the sandbag layer and overpressure and noise measurements are taken at several distances from the center of the detonation. Therefore, there is not full coupling between the explosive event and the sandbags whereas BEM assumes full coupling between the explosive event and the soil.

USAESCH is involved in a test program to determine the thickness of sandbags necessary to defeat the primary fragments from a munition detonated on the ground surface.

The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely.

BlastX Analysis | Safety Management Services, Inc.

The theory used in dor development of the BEM software will ode discussed. However, it is not clear at this time roe which portion of the burial depth this is true. Box Huntsville, AL Telephone: The results of the hand calculations and the BEM calculations are shown in Figures 2 and 3.

The results from these tests are compared to the results from BEM in Table 3. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of soe collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Jefferson Davis Highway, SuiteArlington VA A standard fragment is assumed.

Sandbag throw is also measured. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. If the energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed. Due to calculation restraints division by the depth of burialif the depth of burial is zero the software assumes a depth of burial of 0.