06) CAPÍTULO 1 -Apuntes de Fisica General – José Pedro Agustin Valera Negrete. Force / Mass / Hypothesis / Science / Scientific Method. Download. BIBLIOGRAFÍA APUNTES DE FISICA GENERAL AUTOR: JOSÉ PEDRO AGUSTÍN VALERA NEGRETE PAG: 85, PAG LEY DE HOOKE. Download 06) CAPÍTULO 1 -Apuntes de Fisica General – José Pedro Agustin Valera Negrete – The Best Way to Share & Discover Documents –

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Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucrea Venezuelan north-eastern state. Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems GISgeostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies.

The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area.

Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records.

Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes.

Apuntes de Fisica General

These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases.

This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela Estado Sucre during the period These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria.

Sciaenidae in the North vvalera of Estado SucreVenezuela]. Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in male and female specimens, between Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of vvalera. The mean intestinal index was 0.

Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans Generap diet of this species did not vary with sex. Revised seismic history of beneral El Pilar fault, Northeastern Venezuela, from the Cariaco earthquake and recent preliminary paleoseismic results.

Other major results from the reassessment of the seismic history of this fault are: This reassessment also sheds light into the El Pilar fault segmentation and the behavior of its seismogenic barriers through time. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela. The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The genegal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary.

Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results.

The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development.

The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: Total dissolved atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the anoxic Cariaco basin. Atmospheric deposition of total dissolved nitrogen TDN is an important source of nitrogen for ocean primary productivity that has increased since the industrial revolution. Thus, understanding its role in the ocean nitrogen cycle will help assess recent changes in ocean biogeochemistry.


We evaluated the potential anthropogenic N influences by measuring wind velocity and direction, size-fractionated gfneral particles, chemical traces and by performing back trajectories. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin Venezuela. The mineralogical composition of 95 surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin continental shelf and Orinoco delta was investigated in order to constrain the clay-mineral main provenance and distribution within the Cariaco Basin.

The spatial variability of the data set was studied using a geo-statistical approach that allows drawing representative clay-mineral distribution maps. Valeta maps are used to identify present-day dominant sources for each clay-mineral species in agreement with the geological characteristics of the main river watersheds emptying into the basin.

At present, the Tuy River is the main contributor of illite to the western part of the southern Cariaco Basin continental shelf. The Unare River plume, carrying smectite and kaolinite, has a wide westward propagation, whereas the Neveri River contribution is less extended, providing kaolinite and illite toward the eastern Cariaco Basin.

The Manzanares, Araya, Tortuga, and Margarita areas are secondary sources of local influence.

These insights shed light on the origin of present-day terrigenous sediments of the Cariaco Basin and help to propose alternative explanations for the temporal variability of clay mineralogy observed in previously published studies.

The Cariaco Basin is the world’s largest truly marine, permanently anoxic basin apunntes is located on the continental shelf of Venezuela which experiences strong seasonal upwelling.

One of the major puzzles of CARIACO has been the nature of the chemoautotrophic maximum which negretee seen at depths just below the appearance of hydrogen sulfide m. The identity and sources of oxidants and reductants to this active microbial community, and the identity of the chemoautotrophic organisms themselves, are still only partially known.

However both positive and negative isotopic excursions in POC occur at depths where dark carbon fixation is at a maximum, and at or near the se from micro-oxic to sulfidic water.

Results are presented of a high-resolution zpuntes of the planktonic foraminiferal faunas from two piston cores recovered from the Cariaco Basin in the southern Caribbean Sea. The Cariaco Basin is a small anoxic marine basin on the northern continental margin of Venezuela in an area today characterized by both seasonal trade wind-induced upwelling and pronounced dry and wet seasons.

Our data indicate that large changes apumtes the intensity of upwelling, and hence trade wind strength, occurred in this region during the last glacial-interglacial transition and throughout the Holocene. During the last genetal lowstand of sea level, the Negrefe Basin was effectively isolated from the open Caribbean along its northern margin by the then largely emergent Tortuga Bank.

Oxic conditions existed in the deep Cariaco Basin at this time, and surface productivity was low. About 12, years ago, the abrupt initiation of strong upwelling over the basin and the onset of permanent anoxia in the deep waters are coincident with the rapid vxlera of sea level that accompanied the peak interval of meltwater discharge from the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the Gulf of Mexico.

Strong upwelling between 12, and about 10, years ago may be related to intensified trade winds resulting, in part, from cooler sea surface temperatures ngerete the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. After about 10, years ago, upwelling intensity was reduced, though highly variable.

A genera frequency domain analysis of the Holocene portion of the Cariaco Basin time series suggests that solar forcing may explain a significant component of negrwte century-scale variability observed in the record of upwelling and trade wind strength. Quantifying the seasonal variations in fluvial and eolian sources of terrigenous material to Cariaco Basin, Venezuela.

The varved sediments that accumulate in the Cariaco Basin provide a detailed archive of the region’s climatic history, genearl a record of the quantity of fluvial and wind-transported material. In this study, we examine the sedimentological characteristics clay mineralogy and grain size of both surface sediments and sinking lithogenic material collected from sediment trap samples over a three-year period from to The clay mineralogy of the water column samples collected from to also shows distinctive characteristics of eolian and fluvial material.

An examination of surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin indicates that the Unare River is negrege main source of riverine sediments to the eastern sub-basin.

Since aerosols are closely linked to climate variability, the ability to quantify paleo-dust fluxes using sedimentological characteristics will be a useful tool for future paleoclimate studies looking at sub-Saharan aridity and latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

The varved sediments that have accumulated in the Cariaco Basin throughout the Holocene provide a detailed apunfes of the region’s climatic history, and act as a historical record for the occurrence of phenomena such as earthquakes and coastal flooding.


In this study we compare the sedimentological characteristics of lithogenic material collected from the negrte column during transient depositional events to those of normal hemipelagic sedimentation in the basin. Specifically, we have examined the clay mineralogy and grain size distribution of detrital material delivered to the basin by the July 9, earthquake near Cumana, Venezuela and the coastal flooding of Venezuela in late nfgrete The sample material used in our study was collected as part of an ongoing sediment trap time series in the Cariaco Basin.

The sedimentological signatures associated with these two events are distinctive from the typical lithogenic input to the basin. Preliminary data for biweekly samples collected from shows a tri-modal particle size distribution, with peaks at 3, 22, and 80 im. However, material collected from the deep basin immediately following the earthquake is characterized by a particle diameter distribution at 6 and 22 im with a smaller than normal peak at 80 im; this variance suggests an alternate source of material was delivered to the basin via a turbidity flow induced by the earthquake.

Supporting this theory, the clay mineralogy of the same sediment trap samples shows a higher than average ratio of kaolinite to quartz for sediments delivered to the basin following both the earthquake and flooding. We hope to extend the use of these sedimentological methods to identify past transient depositional events in Cariaco Basin cores.

Spatial apuntez seasonal variability of dissolved organic matter in the Cariaco Basin. Lorenzoni, Laura; Taylor, Gordon T.

The program completed monthly core cruises, 40 sediment trap deployment cruises, and 40 microbiogeochemical process cruises. Upwelling along the southern Caribbean Sea occurs from approximately November to August. A diverse community of heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms, viruses, and protozoa thrives within the oxic-anoxic interface. A decrease in upwelling intensity from approximately to and the simultaneous overfishing of sardines in the region led to diminished phytoplankton bloom intensities, increased phytoplankton diversity, and increased zooplankton densities.

The deepest waters of the Cariaco Basin exhibited long-term positive trends in temperature, salinity, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phosphate, methane, and silica.

Earthquakes and coastal flooding also resulted in the delivery of sediment to the seafloor. The program’s legacy includes climate-quality data from suboxic and anoxic habitats and lasting relationships between international researchers.

The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela, and its association with epidemiological risk factors.

The cluster sampling design allowed selecting 96 villages and dwellings in the State’s 15 municipalities. Seroprevalence in Sucre State was 3. Risk factors associated with T. Infection was associated with individual age, and three seropositive cases were found in individuals less than 15 years of age. Sucre State has epidemiological factors that favor the risk of acquiring T.

Evidence for morphological changes of gulf entrance apunhes possible relations with large earthquakes.

yaguaraparo estado sucre: Topics by

The Cariaco Basin and the Gulf of Cariaco in Venezuela are two major basins along the seismogenic El Pilar right lateral fault, among which the Cariaco Basin is a pull-apart. Both basins are sites of neegrete and organic-rich deposits. To examine aountes the sediments in the Gulf of Cariaco have recorded traces of historical or prehistorical earthquakes, we extracted and analyzed twelve 1 m-long gravity cores, sampling the last millennium sedimentation. We focused on analyzing the sediment sources with different techniques particle size analysis, XRF, loss on ignition tests, magnetic properties, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, 14C dating.

The results confirm that major upwelling occurs at generwl western gulf entrance and makes deep water flowing from the Cariaco Basin into the Gulf of Cariaco. These flows carry an organic-rich suspended load.

We suggest that the earthquake-induced large submarine landslides that modified the topography of the gulf’s entrance, which in turn promoted upwelling and open marine water flows from the Cariaco Basin. The layer SiCL3 would be the sediment load remobilized during this chain of events. The preservation of organic carbon in sediments as kerogen is an essential pathway in the global carbon cycle, but the chemical reactions involved in kerogen formation remain poorly understood.

Previous researchers have found that many sediments deposited under euxinic conditions contain sulfur-bearing non-polar lipids as well as disulfide bonds among lipid and carbohydrate monomers. It remains unclear, however, when during organic matter generwl and diagenesis these different sulfur-bearing structures form, and how different environmental conditions affect the extent of organic matter sulfurization.